Schaumburg-Lippe is a historical German state that lay between the Weser and Leine rivers (without touching either), and was bounded on the south by the Weser mountains and crossed in the north by the Rehburger mountains. Geographically it extended from 52°12' to 52°30' north latitude and from 8°58' to 9°26' east longitude, with an area of 340 square kilometers.
Population of Schaumburg-Lippe by Year
Occupations practiced in Schaumburg-Lippe in 1907
Farming, gardening, animal husbandry, forestry, and fishing
Industry, including mining and construction
Commerce and transportation, including hostelry and innkeeping
Household occupations, also odd jobs
Public service, independent occupations
No occupation given
Political Divisions (Counties, Cities, Communities)
As of 1912, Schaumburg-Lippe had two cities not belonging to any county (kreisfreie Städte):
Bückeburg, the capital since 1606, city since 1609, and
Stadthagen, until 1606 capital of Grafschaft Schaumburg, city since 1344;
and two counties (Kreise):
Kreis Bückeburg, formerly the Ämter Bückeburg and Arensburg, in the west, and
Kreis Stadthagen, formerly the Ämter Stadthagen and Hagenburg, in the east.
Evangelical-reformed communities exist in Bückeburg and Stadthagen. The ruling house belonged to this faith. These churches are also included in the list of parishes, pastors, and churchbooks.
Catholic communities exist in Bückeburg (1719–), Helpsen, and Stadthagen (1883–), and starting 1846 were under the direction of the bishop of Osnabrück. They now belong to the diocese of Hildesheim. The churchbooks are included in the list of parishes, pastors, and churchbooks.
An apostolic community existed in Bückeburg in 1912.
Evangelisch-Freikirchliche (Baptist) churches exist in Bückeburg and Stadthagen.
A Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der letzten Tage (LDS, Mormon) church exists in Stadthagen.
Religious affiliations in Schaumburg-Lippe in 1905
Other Christian denominations
Schaumburg-Lippe was one of the smallest German states until the end of World War II. It was formed after the Thirty Years' War, when Graf Otto V of Schaumburg died without issue. The older and larger Grafschaft Schaumburg went to his mother, Gräfin Elisabeth zur Lippe as the only legal heir, who in 1643 transferred her rights to her brother, Graf Philipp zur Lippe-Alverdissen, with whom she ruled as coregent until her death in 1646. In this period the Grafschaft Schaumburg began to be divided: the Grafschaft Pinneberg (in Holstein) was transferred to the King of Denmark, the Herrschaft Bergen (in Holland) was sold, Gehmen (in Westphalia) was transferred to the Graf von Limburg, and the Grafschaft Sternberg fell to Lippe.
Finally in 1647, after many territorial demands made by neighboring states, the Landgraf von Hessen and Graf Phillip zur Lippe-Alverdissen decided to divide the Grafschaft Schaumburg. Braunschweig-Lüneburg took the Ämter Lauenau, Mesmerode, and Bokeloh. Hessen received the Ämter Schaumburg and Rodenberg (which together included the towns of Rinteln, Obernkirchen, Rodenberg and Oldendorf), as well as a part of the Amt Sachsenhagen; this area in Hessen was called the Kreis Grafschaft Schaumburg. The remaining area, including the Ämter Bückeburg, Arensburg, Stadthagen, Hagenburg, and part of Sachsenhagen, formed the new Grafschaft Schaumburg-Lippe. Three things remained common property between Schaumburg-Lippe and Hessen: the Universität Rinteln (until 1665), the Weser river tolls (until 1734), and the Obernkirchen, Stadthagen, and Sülbeck coal mines (until 1940). This division was codified in the Peace of Münster.
The rulers of Schaumburg-Lippe had their seat and the family still has their residence at the Schloss Bückeburg.
They also have or had manors or properties at
In 1743, Schaumburg-Lippe joined Maria Theresia of Austria and troops from Holland and England in their war against France and Bavaria. They took part in the battles of Dettingen (1743), Fontenoy (1745), Raucoux (1746), and Laffeld (1747).
Schaumburg-Lippe sided with King George II of England (also Prince Electorate of Hannover) and thus with Frederick the Great of Prussia in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) against France. The Schaumburg-Lippe troops under Graf Wilhelm were under the command of the Duke of Cumberland and then Duke Ferdinand von Braunschweig, and participated in the siege of Minden in 1757 and the battle of Minden in 1759. Bückeburg was occupied by the French between these two Minden actions. Further actions were undertaken at the battle of Marburg Castle (1759), the siege of Münster (1760), the relief of Kassel (1761), and the battle of Hamm (1761). In 1761, Graf Wilhelm started the construction of Wilhelmstein, a fortress on an artificial island in the Steinhuder Meer. (The military school in this fortress was later to produce the famous General Scharnhorst.) Graf Wilhelm also took his Schaumburg-Lippers with the English army to Portugal in 1762–3, where he was the commander-in-chief of the combined Portuguese/British/Schaumburg-Lippisch army. He successfully defended Portugal against Spain and modernized Portugal's military. The Portuguese Fort de la Lippe (now known as the Forte de Nossa Senhora da Graça), near Elvas, was established by him and named in his honor. Graf Wilhelm ordered the first Schaumburg-Lippe census, held in 1766.
At the death of Graf Philipp-Ernst, his wife Juliane became regent for their young son Georg-Wilhelm. Landgraf Wilhelm IX von Hessen-Kassel claimed that because Juliane was not sufficienly highborn to claim inheritance for herself or her children due to her supposed morganatic ancestry, he was the rightful liege lord of Schaumburg-Lippe, and used this as a pretext to invade Schaumburg-Lippe on 17 Feb 1787, occupying all except for the Wilhelmstein. But the Imperial Court in Vienna recognized the high birth of Juliane and ordered the Landgraf to cease his illegal invasion and withdraw, which he did after a two-month occupation.
Schaumburg-Lippe was originally a county (Grafschaft), but to protect its independence it joined the Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund) on 18 April 1807 and thereupon became a principality (Fürstentum). Schaumburg-Lippe was required to field 280 troops for Napoleon; they took part in the march on Russia in 1812. After the defeat of Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813, the Confederation of the Rhine was dissolved, and Schaumburg-Lippe joined the nations allied against Napoleon. It joined the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) in 1815, and fielded a batallion of 240 men and 120 reservists. (These troops were later used in the maneuvers in Schleswig-Holstein in 1849, and as occupation forces in Luxemburg in 1859.) In November 1837, Schaumburg-Lippe joined the fiscal union of the northeastern German states (Steuerverein). In 1845, Schaumburg-Lippe joined Prussia, Hannover, and the Electorate of Hessen in building a rail line from Hannover to Minden. In 1854, Schaumburg-Lippe joined the German-Austrian Postal Union (Postverein) and the Prussian Customs Union (Zollverein). In 1866, Schaumburg-Lippe joined Prussia in a military treaty, and in 1867 in military union, whereafter the Schaumburgers served in the Prussian military. In 1867, Schaumburg-Lippe became a member of the North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund). In 1871, Schaumburg-Lippe participated in the unification of Germany.
After World War I, the constitution of the Weimar Republic required that the rule of the prince give way, so he renounced the throne on 15 November 1918. A temporary constitution was drawn in 1919, and a final, republican and democratic one in 1922. Schaumburg-Lippe became a republic (Freistaat), headed by a state president since 1933. This democratic government was later suppressed during Nazi rule. After World War II, the British military occupation government order number 55 of 1 November 1946 decreed the union of Schaumburg-Lippe, Hannover, Braunschweig, and Oldenburg to form the new state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen). The Kreise Bückeburg and Stadthagen from the former principality of Schaumburg-Lippe were then united in 1948 to constitute the Kreis Schaumburg-Lippe. The Kreisreform of 1 August 1977 then joined Kreis Schaumburg-Lippe with the Kreis Grafschaft Schaumburg to form the current Landkreis Schaumburg. This border reform also incorporated Wiedensahl into the county, but excluded Steinhude and the region near Frille.
The archived church records were transferred to the Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv Bückeburg, where they are held, though they are still owned by the church. Microfiche copies of the church records are available at the Staatsarchiv for public research. Some of the records are available online. See the list of the available records by parish and year (not by volume or fiche, online availability not highlighted). The page also lists the pastors for each church.
The archived church records are also held by the Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv Bückeburg. Microfiche copies of the church records are available at the Staatsarchiv for public research. Some of the records are available online. See the list of the available records by parish and year (not by volume or fiche, online availability not highlighted).
For all other church records, write to the appropriate parish.
Geschichtliches Ortsverzeichnis für Schaumburg, Gudrun Husmeier, (Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Niedersachsen und Bremen; 239.) /(Schaumburger Studien ; Bd. 68.) (Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, 2008)
Geschichtliches Ortsverzeichnis von Niedersachsen, Historische Kommission für Niedersachsen (Lax, 1964–1996)
Verzeichnis der Pfarrämter in Schaumburg-Lippe (1965. (s.l.))
Laur, Wolfgang. Die Ortsnamen in Schaumburg. (Rinteln: Bösendahl, 1993, Schaumburger Studien; Heft 51).
Maack, Ursula. Die Flurnamen des Schaumburgischen Wesertals. (1974. C. Bösendahl, Rinteln, Schaumburger Studien; Heft 32)
Landesamt für Geoinformation und Landesvermessung Niedersachsen (LGLN)
In addition to current topographical and special-purpose maps, their offerings include a 1754 map by J. C. Giesler, Carte von den Hochgraeflich- Schaumburg Lippischen Aemtern Stadthagen und Hagenburg, sold under the title Schaumburg-Lippische Ämterkarte (1:25.000), catalog number SL1.
SchaumburgGIS online graphical information service includes most of historical Schaumburg-Lippe.
Map of Brunswick, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe-Detmold, etc., from Blackie & Sons Atlas (Edinburgh, 1882), scale: 1:8,000,000 (or one inch = about 28 miles).
Landkreis Schaumburg: Freizeitkarte. (Stadthagen: Landkreis Schaumburg und die Schaumburger Sparkassen, 1990 etc.). Formerly available from Landkreis Schaumburg, Jahnstraße, 31655 Stadthagen, Germany, Tel. (05721) 703459.
Bibliography and Literature
Busch, Friedrich. Schaumburgische Bibliographie (Hildesheim, A. Lax, 1964, Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Niedersachsen, 31.)
Wiegmann's Heimatkunde is useful, readable, and available. Its major fault is that it appeared in 1912 and necessarily neglects history that had not yet been made. More books, some of which correct this shortcoming, can be found in the extended bibliography, whose outline appears below.
Wiegmann, W. Heimatkunde des Fürstentums Schaumburg-Lippe (1912. Stadthagen. Verlag von Heinrich Heine. Reprinted 1990 by Verlag C. W. Niemeyer, Hameln.) Includes a folded map 1:150,000 of the Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe and Kreis Rinteln (Schaumburg).
Engel, Franz. Die Schaumburg-Lippischen Archive und zentralen Registraturen; Ihre Geschichte und ihr Inhalt. (1955. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.) Veröffentlichungen der Niedersächsischen Archivverwaltung, Heft 4.
Haase, Carl. Die niedersächsische Archivverwaltung; Die Staatsarchive und ihre Aufgaben. (1974. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.) Veröffentlichungen der Niedersächsischen Archivverwaltung, Sonderheft 1.
Schaumburg-Lippe used the Julian calendar until 1700, and the Protestant (the so-called "improved") calendar thereafter. In 1700 the calendar jumped from 18 February to 1 March (i.e., 19 February = 1 March). The Protestant calendar differed from the Gregorian calendar only in the determination of Easter and its associated moveable holidays, and then only in 1724 and 1744, when Easter was a week earlier than in the Gregorian calendar. This difference was eliminated in 1775, when the Protestant church decided to follow the Gregorian determination of Easter. This decision became official for the whole of the Holy Roman Empire on 7 June 1776.
Trachten) in Schaumburg-Lippe fall into these categories:
Thomas Abbt (1738–1766), author and philosopher, lived his last year in Bückeburg. Of him Herder wrote that he "died for Germany and for his language too early!"
Friedrich Christian Accum (1769–1838), industrial and food chemist born in Bückeburg, developed sal ammonia and lighting gas processes, making public gas lighting possible.
Clemens von Althaus (1791–1836), officer in the South American wars of independence, general in the army of Peru. He was the cartographer of the first complete atlas of Peru.
Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (1732–1795), "der Bückeburger Bach", son of Johann Sebastian and Anna Magdalena Bach. Composer and virtuoso keyboardist. From 1750 (six months before his father died) until his own death he was chamber musician and concertmaster in Bückeburg. He also collaborated with Herder.
Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach (1759–1845), "der Mindener Bach", son of Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach, last male-line descendant of Johann Sebastian Bach, and the only grandson of Johann Sebastian Bach to gain fame as a composer. Harpsichordist for two queens under Friedrich Wilhelm II. He said "Heredity can tend to run out of ideas."
Anton Friedrich Büsching (1724–1793), German geographer and educator, born in Stadthagen. He was the founder of the St. Peters Gymnasium in St. Petersburg. He helped develop a scientific basis for the study of geography by stressing statistics rather than descriptive writing. He was married to the poetess Polyxene Christiane Auguste Dilthey.
Wilhelm Busch (1832–1908), painter, poet, and, most importantly, cartoonist. Author of Max und Moritz and other pictorial narratives with verse text, he is known as the inventor of the comic strip. Born in Wiedensahl, Busch spent much time in Schaumburg-Lippe.
Eberhard David Hauber (1695–1765), theologian, pastor in Stadthagen, superintendant of the county of Schaumburg-Lippe, geographer, historian, Büsching's teacher.
Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher. He was the leading figure of the Sturm und Drang literary movement. He was the head pastor and court preacher at Bückeburg from 1771 to 1776, where some of his important works were written.
Gottfried von Herder (1774–1806), doctor of medicine. He co-conducted the autopsy of Friedrich Schiller.
Heymann Heine (?–1780), Jewish businessman, grandfather of Heinrich Heine.
Adolf Holst (1867–1945), writer and children's book author. "Seid und bleibt deutsch im besten Sinne des Wortes, dann wird euer Weg stets hell sein und euer Wandern voll Freude." He worked in Bückeburg.
The brothers Wilhelm (1770–1851) and Friedrich (1774–1841) Havemeyer, who emigrated from Schaumburg-Lippe in 1802, were the progenitors of the American Havemeyer family, the famous Sugar Kings who ran the American Sugar Refining Company. William Havemeyer (1804–1874), the thrice-elected mayor of New York City, helped form a volunteer regiment, composed mostly of German immigrants, during the Civil War.
Frederick Nerge, born in Reinsdorf (Schaumburg-Hessen, actually), suggested the name of Schaumburg (Illinois, USA), a village founded in an area rich with emigrants from Schaumburg-Lippe.
Onomastics & etymology
Weiland, Wilhelm. Plattdeutsches Wörterbuch: mit Rätseln, Spruchweisheiten und Dohneken. (Stadthagen: Ortsgemeinschaft, 1983.)
Moeller, Felix. Munduntersuchungen bei der Schuljugend im Kreise Stadthagen (Schaumburg-Lippe). (Lengerich i. W. 1938: Handelsdr. 24)